Are you faced with the challenge of meeting the measurement accuracy requirements of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)? And do you have a plan of how you could ensure compliance while staying focused on production rather than gathering samples?
Gas producers must comply with the BLM 43 CFR 3175 regulations, which establish minimum standards for accurate measurement and proper reporting of all gas removed or sold from Federal and Indian (except the Osage Tribe) leases, units, Unit Participating Areas (PAs), and areas subject to Communitization Agreements (CAs).
The BLM rule provides a system for production accountability by operators, lessees, purchasers, and transporters. This rule establishes overall gas measurement performance standards and includes, among other things, requirements for the hardware and software related to gas metering equipment, reporting, and recordkeeping. The BLM rule also identifies certain specific acts of noncompliance that may result in an immediate assessment and provides a process for the BLM to consider variances from the requirements of this rule.
There’s a way to be compliant with these regulations while reducing measurement errors and the costs of complying with 40 CFR 3175. Simplifying the process can allow you to focus on production rather than gathering samples. The approach is to use the appropriate natural gas chromatograph (GC). For example, Emerson’s Rosemount™ 370XA and 770XA GCs reduce BTU measurement errors often found with spot sampling. The online sampling of field-mounted GCs eliminates the need for personnel to frequently travel to the Facility Measurement Point (FMP) to pull a sample; saving man hours and travel costs. The 370XA is ideal for C6+ applications while the 770XA is ideal for C9+ applications or where hydrocarbon liquids may be present. Both are compact in design, don’t require a shelter, offer low utility gas consumption, and operate on 24 Vdc. This makes them perfect for remote locations.
The 370XA and 770XA provide analysis per requirements of the Gas Processors Association (GPA). They offer fully pre-engineered custody transfer application solutions that provide accurate and repeatable measurement analysis for the heating value of natural gas (§§3175.118).
In addition, the use of an advanced GC software solution such as the Emerson MON2020 further simplifies compliance and reduces maintenance and operation costs. The software gives you complete control of the GC either locally or remotely. You can store 88 days of analysis results, over a year of final calibration results, and over 1,700 chromatograms. The analysis report provides heating value and relative density.
In total, a straightforward evaluation of technologies can save natural gas operators both time and money. Managing compliance using the appropriate gas chromatograph not only meets BLM 43 CFR 3175 regulatory requirements, it saves substantial time and money while allowing the user to employ a familiar, proven, and highly accurate technology for the job.
Do you use GCs to meet BLM requirements? What is your approach?
The new Rosemount™ 6888C In-Situ Oxygen Analyzer can help you lower energy consumption and costs while minimizing emissions resulting from combustion processes. The robust Rosemount zirconia sensing cell features an acid-resistant option with catalytic beads to increase cell lifetimes in the presence of sulfur and other poisoning agents in flue gas.
The latest addition to the Rosemount 6888 portfolio can be configured as a blind, stand-alone transmitter with HART® or FOUNDATION™ Fieldbus communications, or with the Rosemount 6888Xi or Oxymitter remote electronics, or with an Emerson™ Wireless 775 THUM™ Adapter. The Rosemount 6888 analyzer is known for being simple to install, commission, and operate, and features a variety of calibration options. Calibrations can be performed manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. Semi- and fully-automatic calibration requires the use of a Rosemount IMPS 4000 or SPS 400 1B accessory or by ordering the integral autocalibration option. Additionally, the Rosemount 6888 portfolio provides industry-leading accuracy of ±0.75% of reading or ±0.05% O2, whichever is greater.
Gas chromatographs perform critical measurements in a wide range of process and natural gas industries. In many applications like natural gas production and custody transfer, these measurements translate directly into profitability, process efficiency, and regulatory and contract compliance. That’s why optimizing the performance of your GC can have a big impact on your bottom line.
To help users get the most from their GC over the course of its lifecycle, Emerson is offering a free webinar series that brings together our GC experts to offer trusted insights and best practices. The webinars will also provide answers to most frequently asked questions and solutions to challenges operators may be facing in the field. The first webinar in the series is coming right up –
WEBINAR 1: GC’s Response Factors and Why They Are Important
Tuesday, May 1, 2018
10 AM – 11 AM CDT (Houston)
Emerson’s GC expert, Bonnie Crossland, will discuss the importance of GC’s response factor. Understanding how a detector responds to the measured components can provide an effective way to validate the correct operation of your gas chromatograph. Changes in the detector’s response to the measured components can indicate changes in the analysis that might cause inaccurate measurements.
This webinar will review the elements that can cause variations in a response factor, and how those variations can be used to help troubleshoot the gas chromatograph.
There’s no perfect flame detection system for every application. Matching optical flame detector options – including single wavelengths of UV and IR, integrated UV/IR sensors, and more advanced units that offer triple wavelength IR sensors – to your requirements is everything. If you understand the type of flame to be detected, the environmental conditions surrounding the installation, and the required performance, the choice of flame detection technology becomes easier and the potential for false alarms is decreased.
Almost all flames produce heat, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, carbon, and other products of combustion, which emit visible and measurable UV and IR radiation. These same emissions from non-flame sources cause nuisance false alarms and plant shutdowns. There are two basic types of these emissions: natural sources including rain, lightning, and sunlight; and man-made sources including artificial light sources, welding, and radiation from heaters and machinery. All types include solar-blind UV; window contaminates; non-modulated IR; and modulated IR sources.
Energy that is constant over time or varies at an extremely slow rate like the IR energy emitted from heaters, lamps, and heat from the sun are described as non-modulated sources of radiation. Additionally, there’s a small amount of IR radiation emitted from all objects which is constantly present in any detector’s field of view. As a result, the majority of flame detectors are designed to only detect modulated IR radiation sources – a key characteristic of flames. Still, the detection isn’t straightforward. False sources include heated emissions, moving lights, signals, or combinations of non-modulating sources being altered by objects moving back and forth in front of them in between the source and the sensor (e.g., vehicles, personnel, or fan blades). This is overcome by the use of multi-bands which can distinguish on the IR spectrum between flames and other sources of radiation.
Outdoor applications must contend with the visible range of sunlight, which covers 0.3 to 0.8 microns. UV detectors generally detect energy below solar emissions (0.185 to 0.260 microns) and can be a suitable choice for outdoor applications because of their extremely fast response and wide field of view; but UV/IR and triple IR options offer higher immunity to potential false alarms from high-energy bursts from reflective surfaces. Safety engineers must also consider the source of the fire when selecting a detector. If the fuel could potentially be hydrogen-based, for example, a specially tuned detector is required. For hydrocarbon-based fires from fuels such as methane and gasoline, multi-spectrum IR detectors are typically the best choice.
Window contamination will negatively affect the detector’s performance and can cause the instrument to go into fault mode. Water droplets, condensation, snow, and ice are powerful absorbers of IR energy that can be delivered in random scales and intensity and are a well-known source to trigger false alarms or faults when combined with modulated energy sources like direct sunlight. UV radiation is also easily absorbed by a range of oils, smoke, carbon, and specific gases. Engineers need to be aware of the presence of vapors such as hydrogen sulfide, benzene, ammonia, ethanol, acetone, and others when selecting a flame detector for their application.
By analyzing your application for these types of potential false alarm triggers, you can let your flame detection expert know all the parameters for an optimal detector selection. If you’re experiencing a lot of false alarms, this may be a good time to review your choice of flame detection technology.
Knowledge is key to maximizing the capabilities of your Rosemount™ Gas Chromatographs (GC). Understanding how to properly operate and maintain your GC will help increase uptime, reduce maintenance costs, and extend asset life.
Regardless of your experience level, the Rosemount gas chromatograph online course will provide the knowledge and expertise you need to ensure your operations run as safely and efficiently as possible. This free e-course will provide attendees with a basic understanding of the 370XA gas chromatograph and will cover:
Normally, this e-course is valued at $100, but for a limited time, you can sign up for free.
Plus, if you complete this e-course and take our short survey by June 1, 2018, you’ll be eligible for 15% off your next Rosemount course, including any online courses and hands-on courses at one of our Emerson training centers.
Emerson offers a wide range of both online e-courses and more in-depth, in-person, hands-on training classes on the theory, operations, and maintenance practices for analyzers and instrumentation. For more information on Rosemount’s full range of courses, browse our course catalog, or view a calendar of our instructor-led courses at our training centers in Houston, Minneapolis, and Charlotte.
Register today for the online 370XA gas chromatograph course – a flexible, engaging, convenient way to learn about our GC technologies and solutions and how you can maximize the benefits it offers your plant.